After a trip back in time on the history of the game with computer training, we can walk in space to see what it is, as far as we can tell the computer training in other countries, and finished third, with some thoughts on what is expected of IT in response to the needs of the school and student needs. This is my conclusion. In fact, too often, one wonders how “what computers can do for education?”. However, HP Pavilion DV4 Battery it should rather ask: “What are the needs of education?” And from there, “he can do to meet those needs?”.
I – THE HISTORY OF THE MEETING OF THE COMPUTER The French education system
I mention four phases: 1970, 1980, 1981, 1988. Note that in 1970 there were more than 15 years, half of the history of computing (1948: first computer in 1952: the introduction in France), still had the notion that computer science education,HP Pavilion DV6 Battery it is brand new !
Step One: 1970
This is the date of the OECD conference in Sèvres on “computer training in high school,” the introduction of IT in education is thus placed in an international context. Read the report about this conference, we will: “Do computer education in high school would be to develop algorithmic students with the skills operational agencies.” This text is certainly something for the event that I already canceled: not to ask, but “the computer at school something new algorithmic skills to bring him …” “Is this the algorithmic skills students need it?”. At the same time I found out that his view is not by a technical and cultural: we are in general skills students develop algorithmic operations be organized?HP Pavilion DV7 Battery And these skills can even against those who traditionally developed in the school.
In France, the ball will build on the rebound again by the Ministry of Education project manager is a computer Mercouroff Vladimir. It starts fairly quickly: in 1970 under the presidency of Georges Pompidou. This is the great period of development and modernization, we do not know Sony VGP-BPL8 Battery that we are in an economic crisis.
The discussion is “what the computer should be a new discipline, or is it that in the existing disciplines?”. Create a new discipline, it is quite simple in theory: it creates a CAPES, aggregation, a general inspection program, inspired by research and higher education and they are taught. Do not make a new discipline, however, allows the computer to give all disciplines, but Sony VGP-BPL9 Battery it is unclear who is responsible, we do not really know what to do. It is therefore much more difficult.
But this second route is chosen. I think, for philosophical reasons, we do not want to train researchers in computer science in high school and, for practical reasons, we have not even imagined, the discipline, which he sometimes at the expense of history,Sony VGP-BPL13 Battery science, etc. modes.
We then define a plan limited but consistent. Since we introduced in all disciplines, we’ll see how it goes, and to delegate to for most of the needs of education, the task of teachers. Have a couple of basic training for teachers, training developed by manufacturers and a year and four university centers, but also creates a slight formation by the CNTE. Education research is supported by the teachers of a cell of NPRI Sony VGP-BPL21 Battery data made contact.
There is also the problem of hardware, difficult problem, because we have no current hardware. Of course, we have begun to document the conversations – they were connected to a computer console as a “mini” because it is less massive than the previous, but much larger than today’s computers – but is relatively expensive. So we’ve managed to fit that 58 schools 1972-1976, it seems ridiculous now but at the time was an important experience. In addition, we have the idea, perhaps naively, was the computer can be performed without a computer, because after all, “the ability of the algorithms, operational and organizational” can be purchased through the writing of programs is absolutely necessary, without a machine. to run in theory, because in practice, no programs, no one now so naive to believe that this motivate Sony VGP-BPL22 Battery the students to write.
It eventually became a language suitable for different applications in education, in other words, a language for numerical computations, but also the work on texts: We invented the LSE, which still exists, is no worse than n others is is fairly well organized, but has the disadvantage that it limits Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery to education.
Sun from 1970 to 1976 a plan is fully compatible with a certain naivety, including a strong underestimation of the difficulties in the production of software, the computer also has a general underestimation of time: we n have “not yet understood how difficult it is not burning software but software that can be collected and used by others Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery.
Since 1976, the difficulties begin to appear: the difficulty to generalize, given the cost of equipment, difficult to assess, as in schools, things are very different here, computer club, the CAI etc. However, as always, I think, educational innovations, is the illusion that must be precisely evaluated before generalizing. However, the evaluation of what? What this means in an area as vast as the skills, “the organizers of algorithms, operational,” because you can not put students under a cover that one team and these skills can be s’ expect that there are other disciplines, other means to develop Sony VGP-BPS9A Battery them?
Not particularly some of the lessons learned from the original design, “is there to provide general capabilities,” a tendency to EAO, in other words, a tool for teaching various disciplines. I do not take the word “change” in a pejorative sense, but even then, the EAO is not very good. I’m not saying otherwise has become, despite significant improvements have taken place. Maybe if it was not enough thinking about cross-fertilization between computer science on the one hand, and other disciplines. We are too quick to translate what was being done on a machine in the classroom. It is a very general through technology Information: whatever the area where it applies, begins with the attempt to make the team as we did before hand – what happened, for example, management information. Only later we realize that in carrying out this transposition, we impoverish and practices which is particularly true for Sony VGP-BPS9/S Battery education.
These difficulties in 1976 led to a shelving system of this experience, we stop training for a specific year. Perhaps we should also say that it is reduced at this time of distrust comparisons of educational research, and secondly, the economic crisis Sony VGP-BPS10 Battery began budgets.
Second phase: 1980
Referring to the situation in the country and the world is the time of the first attempts to overcome the crisis and examine the possible role of information technology, not only in class, but the economy and society in general. IT is one of the factors that caused this crisis, because on the one hand the number of jobs because of all the automatic features reduced, but also because it transforms them and the work of monitoring the performance work,Sony Laptop Battery maintenance, design.
Along with this crisis and the economic and social change occurs in computer technology, the evolution of the material with the arrival of the microcomputer to say, operate a computer much less cumbersome, easier, cheaper and has no need for air conditioning, so we have a lot more accessible to the public HP Laptop Battery.
Coupled with this, the report says “information society” NORA MINC – by President Giscard d’Estaing in 1978, he asked, and the report of JC Simon, “Education and information technology in business” in 1980. These reports have socio-economic, cultural, unlike the Sèvres Conference: It’s very important for the company, so you have to train the computer to make people the incentive to discipline a computer . The report recommends that a single computer SIMON-discipline: that is, take your foot against the choice that was made in 1970. It was Dell Laptop Battery then that a dispute between “computer-discipline” and was “computer teaching tools.”
Note that if the relationship (1980) Simon insists on “computer discipline” process “10 000 computers” (1979) the first priority, the EAO! The conditions for the implementation of the action taken by the Ministry of Industry and especially the small percentage set aside for teacher training in relation to resources for equipment, which were abandoned at the time caused some discontent. Thus, universities have been the beginning of 1981 for training teachers, who in turn train their colleagues in institutions equipped, opened four times in three days. We still live largely the idea that the level of information for all Dell Latitude E6400 Battery.
Step Three: June 1981
The Minister Alain Savary blocks the transaction and the requirement of a report to Yves Le Corre and me. The report emphasizes the training of teachers. In 1981, thereby restoring a learning year, and gradually expanded into the middle of the Academy. Organize academic groups of trainers who still exist today. We also have a year of training for trainers and software developers should take a light side and a training of 100 hours for the user through the animation, but n is not proven. We have also emphasized that the projects come from institutions. It was not wanted on the computer, which means that schools know what they need from their computers means a parachute. So, after these decisions, Dell Inspiron 1545 Battery training should be diversified, for example, 100 hours, 50 hours and 50 hours more modular.
We also attempted to defuse the famous argument: “What is a discipline of computer science or a teaching tool is?” He said: “This must be one and the others must be mutually supportive.” The side of a computer-discipline, we have a way to a second computer classes, and the first terminal, which is controlled by a National Science Committee. It is also advisable to introduce computers at all levels of secondary schools in the LEP, which have not been reached, in particular, until we more cautious about the introduction of Dell Studio 1535 Battery information technology in primary schools.
Our recommendations for the production of software has been implemented only partially. This decision was based on the ideas of teachers and to develop a body of industrialization: the CNDP has played this role, however imperfectly. Also were not followed, when we stressed the need to develop Dell Studio 17 Battery educational research.
The spirit of the report is a gradual process and reflect the collaborative spirit that prevailed in the Ministry of Education in 1981 and during the few years that followed. This idea of progressive and reciprocal comparison, but a number of people protesting, “the school is delayed, there is enough information.” Meanwhile, falling prices continues, the development of information technology at home has been explosive, provided the computer, the nano-computers Dell Studio 1555 Battery or PCs. In 1983, the ministry announced plans to introduce 100,000 computers in the size and shape 100 000 between 1983 and 1988.
Step Four: 1985
In 1985 he confirmed the information for the computer to do the location and mass training of teachers, but with the decision, at once and everywhere. Perhaps more naive to believe that the most important thing we can be sent equipment and short courses for teachers, the only products, although the facts HP HSTNN-Q35C Battery would have been paid.
It was reasonable to decide to equip all schools at once? Would not it have been better efforts in education, higher education, such as better teacher training and develop more reliable devices to concentrate? If the TPI plan provides some reservations, but it is very positive, especially networking, educational resources HP HSTNN-IB75 Battery could be better used.
For the present and the future, it is difficult to assess because they are considered unclear. I have some concerns when I say that, in addition to the hearing of certain types of computer use, is not good. This is wrong and is not the role of government to close the doors. Organizing a competition of ideas seems a little naive software “to the point HP HSTNN-C50C Battery where we are today.
II – Computer training in other countries
It is not easy to talk about. The first problem is the extraordinary diversity of situations. And “especially in Western Europe and North America, which was developed in computer training. In Eastern Europe there are very important projects, especially in the Soviet Union, but has spent his intentions. In developing countries some thoughts and a lot of needs, but the computer may seem like a call while using modern techniques, “if there are no teachers for machines pointed in their place,” the difference HP HSTNN-OB74 Battery is better prepared teachers.
In countries with our fellow humans, and there is a second difficulty, the design of the educational system is decentralized to the rule, and there, especially the United States and Canada, a variety of situations. Started in most countries, local initiatives and only then. When we realized that this local initiative are not completely satisfied, was correct in their plans. Decisions are usually made of school districts and the state is managed and to help. In France, but has worked in the opposite direction, but in the end there HP HSTNN-DB74 Battery is a certain convergence.
Another characteristic of these countries, disciplines, different roles, which seems to play here, are not separated. And ‘perhaps easier, a computer, which is often linked to the mathematical discipline, because no matter the same impact on creating the body of teachers and hours. So we have more than back home, the choice of a computing discipline. But with a number of countries, like Denmark, for example, this election is conducted once more with a computer in different disciplines HP DYNA-CHA-LOC Battery.
Most countries have high school came, as is the case with us, are generally much less in the first phase, we have developed. But with the high school and leave it at that, means “no data collected during the school,” and also “the computer is an elective course, is” usually in order to ensure over time, a compulsory subject .
Most countries have high school came, as is the case with us, are generally much less in the first phase, we have developed. But with the high school and leave it at that, means “no data collected during the school,” and also “the computer is an elective course, is” usually in order to ensure over time, a compulsory HP NH494AA#ABA Battery subject .
In the United States and Canada, there are many things, but not much more at home (50 students per computer in the United States, Canada and 44 in France 60-70.) There is also a very open market tutorial, where there are all the products, the products of high quality behavioral. The purpose of education is perhaps less formal, more empirical France and the external qualities, including the graphics are slightly better than ours. Note that some fear has been expressed recently seen on teachers and students as guinea pigs for the industry in the United States. As regards the training of teachers, it seems less developed: the quality of teachers is highly variable, much less homogeneous than in France, HP KS525AA Battery not always easy, the introduction of IT.
In Europe, France seems to me now in a better position for the expansion of IT at all levels of education, development of equipment and teacher training. The only comparable country is Great Britain.
In Great Britain, decentralized, the decision to include institutions, government support and equipment where the equipment is broken only at national level, there is a definition of training opportunities for teachers and the relatively important role in production of teaching materials. On this last point that Britain is ahead of us exercises in 2000 in Europe, in England in 1200 and 700 were developed in France. We focus perhaps too much on the years of “Q”, “communication skills”, while the British of tools such as simulations, HP HSTNN-OB75 Battery exploring a variety specialist.
Other European countries, who thought well in Germany and Switzerland, which represents less than in France. The Netherlands also spend some interesting things.
But almost all governments now think about the contribution of information technology, would be the most spectacular, mainly because they are facing economic problems. And “perhaps some” weak. It is useful to summarize the various aspects of computer science at the school and the results of computer interaction and HP HSTNN-DB75 Battery education.
III – The various aspects of the introduction of computers in education
First calculation of vocational training
There is a big part of today’s debate: it was fast. I limit myself to two observations.
The first flow settings, the computer is, as elsewhere, the rapid increase. Fold-and H, for example, has less meaning than the immediate recruitment of businesses. Even with technicians (BTS or DUT), began to be a saturation of the market. It will likely take the train more professionals in HP GA06047 Battery Bac Bac +4 or +5.
The second: the computer is part of the competence of most jobs, if ‘answering machine or production costs. There is no doubt that all exchanges are now more or less one-dimensional data.
2 What role can information technology in education?
It is often said, “We all need to know the computer because the computer is everywhere.” I must say that this speech, not a modernist, slightly triumphalist “be completely unassailable. After all, the automobile and printing are everywhere, yet in general education, not learning to drive, or printed HP KS525AA#ABA Battery books.
But it is a bit “more to the computer that the agent of thought and action. It’s very important that everyone has an idea on “how to use” computers. But this does not happen by itself and the example word processing clearly indicates that it is not with this type of software is very difficult, but he needs their way of thinking about the text of a nonlinear , to refine their plans, both a change or two levels, but n-tier … “Learning” that the efficiency requires that teach our young people, and when I say in a situation where they want to know how and see and learn the tricks for future generations HP HSTNN-Q34C Battery they need.
So everyone should learn “computer users” and that we need to invent much. In these words, I know I can not teach teachers to teach what you do not do things by halves, and especially to offend. But such software, you need to learn them without knowing exactly how they are made HP HSTNN-IB74 Battery to be used.
Take the example of data analysis: its use in history or economics, especially the Academy, shows that students learn, such as software, without commitment, show the back, answer! It seems to me that this type of learning a bit Systems, a small “black box” is of paramount importance. We need these things without teaching them to analyze in depth, and it is this idea that technology brings more than science: learning to use tools to analyze HP GA08073 Battery, without details.
This is an objection not refuse to hand. Could not a requirement, the student goes too far in that direction, reflecting the state of the machine? It depends on the type of software used. Do not use the student machine but the machine is included in the development of the student: it is a means of SONY VGP-BPL9C Battery training.
3 What are the needs? Computers can help you do it?
The needs are for the most part born of the computer and all the “mint”, as it requires to cut jobs or work in progress to replace the work of another kind (surveillance, maintenance, design …) , other qualities: concrete abstract change, teamwork, responsibility and autonomy. All these qualities are not necessarily those we give to the school, SONY VGP-BPS9B Battery in most cases.
The big challenge – the training process and increase the level – refers to a profound social problem: our society can withstand the rise in unemployment, life, the fact that thousands of people would not have steady work throughout the working life? If we do not tackle school failure at the beginning, I do not think many of our society: it is the primary need of our SONY VGP-BPS9/B Battery instruction!
What are the ingredients of failure? Of course, it is often said, “social”. Yes, but the ingredients of cognitive errors can observe three things:
Delay in the development of manipulative skills in written language;
a lack of autonomy and ability to solve problems;
Closely linked to the previous lack of motivation.
3.1. Computers and motivation
Here I can be formal: See all the experiences that are the introduction of information technology in schools is a huge change in student motivation and failures of students of modest means – often the same thing elsewhere! – There are three reasons for this;
the computer to be modern is useful in itself;
It is a task that can be controlled, and students who can not, when the opportunity to have something or someone?
Finally, with the computer and, above all, the fault changes its character: There is a moral failing of the term – the very term “disorder” is significant – but an error is discovered and you can easily correct it leaves no material trace.
The problem is to keep the motivation up. This interest is fully connected to the activity and independence of the student, so the type of exercise. If you tutorials, just type the words in holes, it is likely that the motivation to disappear quickly.
Another problem is that motivation to transfer to other disciplines? And “closely related to joint activities that will be run by students related. Do not be shy at first, carry out activities that do not like school, games, for example, that students may have to take this strong motivation, the machine in hand. And we play to develop specific skills, and gradually, if possible, be taught to students in exercises related disciplines. This is a good way to do this: Insert the disc games and educational programs, students have been displayed in the menu to do all that is in many cases, you can find SONY VGP-BPS9A/B Battery the curiosity to go.
3.2 Data processing and written language
Start looking for: students under control, often have difficulty in relation to written language, oral language, is generally not very different from the knowledge of students succeed. Why? What is the difference between written and spoken?
Writing is something that is outside of the writer and the action ever since. One of the things that are missing for students in chess is the feeling that focus on the text and it will be interesting to see that the text is not something you write and what they do not touch, but also something that looks and distance from the action. What is often missing in the failure of the pupil is the distance to language: it uses language to communicate to act wisely. In fact, to be by traditional means, the results of any action removes the text and start over, this is not motivating SONY VAIO VGN-SZ95S.
It seems to me that the computer can bring a lot. It is a tool, including word processing, which converts a text that do not pursue this. You can move a paragraph, correct spelling mistakes without a copy. Traditionally, the only tool we can to our students, the design of the book: they can not even fix only twenty! How to build a text from a plan can be refined if we do a level, but the plan, which refines and refines, is it possible, with the usual means, then it is much more possible with the tools for word processing. This is all to do more, with tools that do little that could search tools and organization of ideas, to work the way you want your students to work, which is top-down and refine their SONY VAIO VGN-SZ95NS ideas.
3.3 The data processing and reading
The problem of reading materialized, first at kindergarten and primary school. We know that even here there is a delay of a social nature: all families have the same familiarity with Scripture. We have not in all families, as many books as we do not read the children, we do not show them how many words. But before learning to read, it is clear that we already know something about the reading activity. You do not learn to read if you are not the idea that we read from left to right (in our country, at least …), there are words, they are separated by spaces. .. All things that seem obvious and are not for children who are not familiar with writing SONY VAIO VGN-SZ95US.
The computer can do something to this reading activity is to add text, that is, combining the sound and combine it with writing? I think so. Motivate invent solutions. As they stood on a computer screen a list of four words, and if the child has any of these words or drawing relevant computer to play music, or any other action related words. Four words, this is nothing more than four orders, you will see the motivation and the association wrote to the importance, for here the importance of SONY VAIO VGN-SZ94US action.
If the sound that I think in a few years, we have computers in classrooms will make the speech of acceptable quality, and we can use the sound aspect of the room.
Write from left to right: if the student gives his command on the keyboard, then it will fit on the screen from left to right. If the order consists of two words, he will see that we found a room: say operations. And when I said that we learn by doing, I hope I have shown that there are many ideas which allow the reading of an action you will not be so easy with the usual methods of SONY VAIO VGN-SZ94S learning.
3.4. Computer-assisted learning and reasoning
It is much more difficult. In particular, it says a lot that “it is the programming of the argument.” Currently, no serious study has been conducted, and the reason is probably that capacity building does not make sense in a few tens of hours. However, experiments are performed on a very short time and then it is very difficult to prove anything. There is some plausibility to the contribution of IT to the development of thought, but I will not go beyond SONY VAIO VGN-SZ94PS.
In some cases, it is not a danger to even want to skip steps too fast? There is interest, write, such as the reduction of programming to observe the existing program, simple and complex programs. The official instructions of 1985 were a little scary – programs on average, for example – they have the potential to further the gap between students with an appropriate logic capabilities and those that do not have to. So I recommend some caution. Even the logo – - before you would be very fast, in elementary school, kindergarten, I like to consider what capabilities it is in children.
3.5. Computer. Autonomy, problem solving
The computer is in agreement with a student activity, and learns that by the activity. However, the quality of training material and how it is integrated into the education system is of utmost importance SONY VAIO VGN-SZ94NS.
Take the example of the first exercises in the behaviorist tradition: it was about reflexes (stimulus – response) to develop, by the arrangement that the answer is almost always right, because the theory is not actually increase reflex. These tutorials are not always useless, but not to the idea of structured learning that meet building through active SONY VAIO VGN-SZ85US exploration of students.
Instead, use the exploration of the software. what some call “micro-worlds.” For example, in mathematics, you got to university, must learn to transform expressions, factoring, developments, etc.. It is both a nature somewhat reflective, but also exploratory. What is the normal way to learn at school? Is to analyze in detail all that – we teach the commutative, associative, and so on. – What is it permissible to justify more complex transformations. So we have to solve equations, for example, and then learn, in desperation, it means the end of the year “They make a number of members in a different and changing signs” that tell you the recipe SONY VAIO VGN-SZ85S.
I think the other way should be considered: the computer can help you through different levels of change, much less complete, more analysis to justify the transformation of higher level previously used. So where a computer could completely renew its pedagogy.
IV – Conclusion
Finally, the computer does most of the need to reflect on pedagogy and the possibility of teaching much more diverse. No wonder: When we introduced the numerical calculation by computer, he questioned the methods of calculation when it was introduced in companies, this has led to management practices and work organization to check SONY VAIO VGN-SZ85NS.
As long as there are tutorials on how to implement the role of the teacher, we gain nothing. A computer is much less intelligent than a professor, it is often said that in the brain, there are 10 power 10 power 14 or 15 bits, then a very large hard drive, there are 10 billion euros. Basically, a professor of brain 100,000 times more powerful than a computer. And that’s not all! Do you think the student does not understand, it’s really not in the field of smart SONY VAIO VGN-SZ84US sensors.
We are winners, however, when we invent new ways of teaching situations. The student is now possible in two situations: either it is in a class with 30 friends, and many can not speak or act, or he is alone with his card, and it receives no response! Trying to invent intermediate situations: for a student or a small group of students. The attempt to build software to help in this situation. Then the computer SONY VAIO VGN-SZ84S has its full effect.
This is not necessarily easy to measure: either we determined the “derived cherry” or things evaluate many factors to rule out any scientific assessment. What should I do? Many experiences that attract a fairly plausible. you do things, the exchange SONY VAIO VGN-SZ84PS is really, as we move forward.